Continental F 163 Engine Manual
The intent of this little book is to furnish in compact form the historyof the development of the ship subsidies systems of the maritime nationsof the world, and an outline of the present laws or regulations of thosenations. It is a manual of facts and not of opinions. The author's aimhas been to present impartially the facts as they appear, without coloror prejudice, with a view to providing a practical manual of informationand ready reference. He has gathered the material from documentarysources as far as practicable, and from recognized authorities, Americanand foreign, on the general history of the rise and progress of themercantile marine of the world as well as on the special topic of shipsubsidies. These sources and authorities are named in the footnotes, andvolume and page given so that reference can easily be made to them fordetails impossible to give in the contracted space to which this manualis necessarily confined.
Continental F 163 Engine Manual
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While the fundamental rules of the "Maritime Charter" of 1660 remainedpractically unimpaired, although in the succeeding years hundreds ofregulating statutes were passed, breaks were made in the restrictivebarriers of the code during the first third of the nineteenth century bythe adoption of the principle of maritime reciprocity.[N] In 1815 (July3) a convention establishing a "reciprocal liberty of commerce," betweenthe "territories of Great Britain in Europe and those of the UnitedStates," was signed in London.[O] In 1824-1826 reciprocity treaties wereentered into with various continental powers. In 1827 (August 6) thetreaty of 1815 with the United States was renewed. In 1830 a treaty forregulating the commercial intercourse between the British colonialpossessions and the United States was executed.[P] Under theseconventions, repeatedly interrupted by British Orders in Council and byPresidents' proclamations,[Q] the trading intercourse between bothcountries was regulated till the abrogation of the code of 1660.
In this, as in so many other innovations, Americans led the way. Thefirst steamer to cross the Atlantic was an American-built andAmerican-manned craft. This pioneer was the Savannah, built in NewYork and bought for service between Savannah and Liverpool. She was afull-rigged sailing-vessel, of 300 tons, with auxiliary steam powerfurnished by an engine built in New Jersey. Her paddles were removable,so fashioned that they could be folded fan-like when the ship was undersail only.[S] She made the initial voyage, from Savannah to Liverpool,in the Summer of 1819, and accomplished it in twenty-seven days,[T]eighty hours of the time under steam. Afterwards she made a trip to St.Petersburg, partly steaming and partly sailing, with calls at portsalong the way. Her gallant performance attracted wide attention, butupon her return to America she finally brought up at New York, where hermachinery was removed and sold.
Early under Napoleon III movements toward the adoption of an economicpolicy similar to that then established in England were begun, andshortly a succession of radical changes in the maritime code wereinstituted.[BJ] In 1860 a commercial treaty with England was enteredinto. In 1861 freedom of access of foreign shipping to the French WestIndies was permitted, subject to the payment of special duties varyingaccording to the ports whence the goods were brought, or to which theywere imported. Then at length, in 1866, numerous restrictions of the oldcode were swept away.[BJ] This law of 1866 (May) admitted duty-free allmaterials, raw or manufactured, including boilers and parts of enginesnecessary for the construction, rigging, and outfitting of iron orwooden ships; abolished a premium, or bounty, granted by a law of 1841(May) on all steam engines manufactured in France intended forinternational navigation; admitted to registration foreign-built andfully equipped ships upon the payment of two francs a ton; abolished alltonnage duties on foreign ships, except such as had been or might belevied for the improvement of certain commercial harbors; abolished theflag surtaxes; opened colonial navigation to foreign ships. The monopolyof the coasting trade alone was retained for French ships.[BK]
Complaints against these new regulations were promptly raised byshipbuilders and ship-outfitters,[BK] and in 1870 a Parliamentaryinquiry into their grievances was made. It appeared that shipbuilders,though enabled to import free such materials as they needed, werehandicapped by numerous and extensive formalities; while the outfitterswere embarrassed by special burdens which the law laid upon them, andwhich their British competitors did not have to bear.[BL] In 1872 lawswere passed which reversed much of the act of 1866. A tax of fromthirty to fifty francs a ton measurement was re-imposed on all foreignships purchased for registration in France, together with a duty onmarine engines; again a tonnage duty, of from fifty centimes to onefranc, was imposed on ships of any flag coming from a foreign country orfrom the French colonies; and the provisions freeing materials for shipconstruction, and admitting foreign-built ships to French registrationupon payment of the two-franc tax per ton, were repealed.[BM] In 1873 anextra-parliamentary commission took up the general question of the stateof the commercial marine,[BN] and the outcome of this inquiry was theestablishment of the system of direct bounties. This system was appliedfor the first time in the Merchant Marine Act passed in January, 1881.
The act of 1881 granted both construction and navigation premiums, andwas limited to ten years. The construction bounties, as was declared,were given "as compensation for the increased cost which the customstariff imposed on shipbuilders" in consequence of the repeal of the lawgranting free import of materials by construction; the navigationbounties, "for the purpose of compensating the mercantile navy for theservice it renders the country in the recruitment of the military navy."The construction bounties, on gross tonnage, were as follows: for woodenships of less than 200 tons, ten francs a ton; of more than 200 tons,twenty francs; for composite ships, that is, ships with iron or steelbeams and wooden sides, forty francs a ton; for iron or steel ships,sixty francs; for engines placed on steamers, and for boilers and otherauxiliary apparatus, twelve francs per 100 kilograms; for renewingboilers, eight francs per 100 kilograms of new material used; for anymodification of a ship increasing its tonnage, the above rates on thenet increase of tonnage.[BO] The navigation bounties were confined toships engaged in the foreign trade, and were to be reduced annuallyduring the ten years' term of the law.[BP] They were thus fixed: forFrench-built ships, one franc and fifty centimes a registered ton forevery thousand sea miles sailed the first year, the rate to diminisheach succeeding year of the term seven francs and fifty centimes onwooden ships, and five centimes on iron and steel ships; forforeign-built ships owned by Frenchmen admitted to registry, one-halfthe above rates; for French-built steamers constructed according toplans of the Navy Department, an increase of fifteen per cent above theordinary rate.[BQ]
Thereupon resort was had to another Extra-Parliamentary commission toframe another system. The result was a law of 1906 (April), whichseparated the shipbuilder from the shipowner. The provisions for theconstruction bounty were redrawn with the object, as Professor Viallatésexplains,[CC] "not only to equalize the customs duties affecting thematerials employed, but also to give the builders a compensationsufficient to enable them to concede to the French shipowners the sameprices as foreign builders." The rates were thus fixed on grossmeasurement: for iron and steel steamships, one hundred and forty-fivefrancs per ton; for sailing-ships, ninety-five francs per ton: thesebounties to decrease annually to four francs and fifty centimes forsteamships and three francs ninety centimes for sailing-ships during thefirst ten years of the law's application, thereafter to stand at onehundred francs and sixty-five francs, respectively; for engines andauxiliary apparatus, twenty-seven francs fifty centimes per hundredkilograms. The navigation bounty to owners of French or foreign-builtships under the French flag, was calculated per day of actual running:for steamships, four centimes per ton gross up to 3000 tons; threecentimes more up to 6000; two more to 6000 and above; for sailing-ships,three centimes per ton up to 500 tons, two more up to 1000, and one moreto 1000 and above. This bounty to continue for the first twelve years ofthe law. The provisions for fostering speed development in steamshipsexcluded from compensation those making on trial, half laden, less thannine knots, in place of ten in the previous law; reduced the rate tofifteen per cent of the bounty for those showing more than nine and lessthan ten knots; and increased this rate by ten per cent for those makingat least fourteen knots, by twenty-five per cent for fifteen knots, andthirty per cent for sixteen knots. The extra bounty equal to twenty-fiveper cent of the regular navigation bounty to steamships constructed onplans approved by the Navy Department, and the provision making allmerchant ships subject to requisition by the Government in case of war,were retained as in previous laws.[CD] This is the law at present inforce.
This law was succeeded by an act of 1895 granting construction bounties,with the intent of fostering domestic shipping and the use of domesticmaterial. The rates were proportioned according to the amount of foreignor domestic material used, construction with domestic product receivingthe highest bounty. These rates were: for iron or steel hulls, thirty tosixty krone per ton; for wooden ships, ten to twenty-five krone per ton;for engines and auxiliary machinery, ten to fifteen krone per ton ofmaterials used; for boilers and pipes, six to ten krone per ton ofmaterial. The total amount to be paid out yearly was limited to themodest figure of two hundred thousand krone ($40,600).[DL] 350c69d7ab